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Optimizing Composite Durability via Multiscale Interphase Engineering

TLDR

 

The Challenge of Achieving High Strength and Ductility in Fiber-Reinforced Composites

High strength and ductility are essential for the performance of fiber-reinforced polymer composites (FRPCs), which are widely used in aerospace, automotive, and renewable energy industries due to their excellent specific strength and resilience in harsh environments. However, achieving both high strength and ductility simultaneously in these materials has proven to be a significant challenge.


Fiber-reinforced composites are typically fabricated by infusing continuous or chopped inorganic and organic fibers with thermosetting or thermoplastic polymers. The resulting materials often suffer from poor fiber-matrix interfacial bonding, which hinders effective load transfer between the fibers and the matrix. This weak interfacial bonding limits the mechanical properties of the bulk composites, making it difficult to achieve the desired combination of strength and ductility.

Some of the key state-of-the-art research areas in polymer matrix composites and hierarchical interphase formation are:


Material Characterization and Modeling

  • Advanced characterization techniques to understand the mechanical, chemical, and physical properties of composites at multiple scales

  • Multiscale modeling approaches that bridge molecular interactions to macroscopic behavior

  • Application of cutting-edge simulation tools integrating multiscale and multiphysics methods

Novel Manufacturing Techniques

  • Additive manufacturing for creating components with optimized geometries and material distribution

  • Development of sustainable composites using bio-based resins and recyclable fibers

Hierarchical Interphase Engineering

  • Deposition of nano-objects like carbon nanotubes, ZnO nanowires, and nanocelluloses on fiber surfaces to create hierarchical fibers

  • Tailoring the fiber/matrix interphase in composites using hierarchical fibers for improved interfacial adhesion and toughness

  • Bio-inspired hierarchical architectures mimicking natural systems like nacre and wood for high strength and toughness

Performance and Durability

  • Optimizing mechanical properties like toughness, fatigue resistance, and thermal stability for aerospace applications

  • Understanding impact resistance and fatigue mechanisms for predictive modeling of composite lifespan and reliability

  • Advanced non-destructive testing (NDT) and structural health monitoring (SHM) for damage detection and mitigation

Sustainable Composites

  • Development of eco-friendly composite materials for lightweight automotive applications

  • Integration of bio-based and recyclable components to reduce environmental impact

Conventional approaches to improve the fiber-matrix interface include applying fiber sizing, which involves coating the fiber surface with a thin polymer layer to protect the fibers and promote adhesion with the matrix. Other methods involve incorporating nanomaterials to enhance the interfacial properties. Despite these efforts, a tough interphase that is both strong and ductile remains elusive.


 

Poor Fiber-Matrix Interfacial Bonding Limits Composite Performance

Fiber-reinforced polymer composites (FRPCs) are critical materials in various high-performance applications, including aerospace, automotive, and renewable energy sectors. These composites rely on the effective load transfer between fibers and the polymer matrix to achieve their exceptional mechanical properties. However, poor fiber-matrix interfacial bonding remains a significant obstacle, limiting the full potential of these materials.


The inherent heterogeneity in FRPCs often results in weak fiber-matrix interfaces. This weak bonding is due to the lack of effective chemical or physical interactions between the reinforcing fibers and the polymer matrix. As a consequence, the load transfer efficiency between the fibers and the matrix is compromised, leading to suboptimal mechanical performance of the composites.


Several traditional methods have been employed to enhance fiber-matrix adhesion, such as fiber sizing and the incorporation of nanomaterials. Fiber sizing involves coating the fiber surface with a thin polymeric layer that promotes adhesion with the matrix. While this method can improve interfacial shear strength (IFSS) by up to 50%, it still falls short of providing the necessary toughness and durability required for advanced applications.


Incorporating nanomaterials like carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene into the fiber sizing or the bulk matrix has shown some promise. These nanomaterials can increase the surface roughness and stiffness of the interphase, thereby enhancing interfacial properties. For instance, CNTs have been shown to improve IFSS by over 25%. However, achieving uniform dispersion and strong bonding between nanomaterials and the polymer matrix remains a challenge, often requiring advanced dispersion techniques.


Recent advancements have introduced hierarchical interphase formation using high aspect ratio chemically transformable thermoplastic nanofibers. These nanofibers form a physically intertwined scaffold around the reinforcing fibers and covalently bond with the polymer matrix. This approach not only improves fiber-matrix adhesion but also creates a high volume fraction of immobilized matrix, enhancing the composite's overall toughness.


Molecular dynamics simulations and atomic force microscopy studies have demonstrated that these hierarchical structures significantly improve fiber-matrix stress transfer. Composites with such nanoengineered interphases exhibit up to 60% increased in-plane shear strength and 100% enhanced toughness compared to conventional composites.


Despite these advancements, the challenge of achieving a perfect balance between strength and ductility persists. Continued research is necessary to develop more efficient and scalable methods for enhancing fiber-matrix interfacial bonding, ultimately leading to FRPCs with superior performance in demanding applications.
 

Enhancing Composite Toughness with Hierarchical Interphase Formation

To address the persistent challenge of poor fiber-matrix interfacial bonding in fiber-reinforced polymer composites (FRPCs), a novel approach has been developed: hierarchical interphase formation using high aspect ratio chemically transformable thermoplastic nanofibers. This method significantly enhances the mechanical properties of composites by improving the load transfer efficiency between the fibers and the polymer matrix.

The hierarchical interphase formation process involves several key steps:

Electrospinning of PAN Nanofibers:

  • Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers are produced using the electrospinning technique. This process creates a randomly oriented, high aspect ratio nanofiber network that can be easily integrated into the composite structure.

  • The nanofibers are deposited on the reinforcing carbon fiber surface, creating a physically intertwined scaffold.

Integration with Polymer Matrix:

  • The PAN nanofibers are chemically transformed to covalently bond with the acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) polymer matrix. This transformation is achieved through a controlled heat treatment process.

  • The heat treatment causes the nitrile groups in PAN and ABS to form covalent bonds, resulting in a co-continuous interphase that bridges the core reinforcing fibers and the matrix.

Characterization of Interphase Properties:

  • Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is used to characterize the stiffness distribution within the fiber-matrix interphase. This method provides detailed maps of the local Young’s modulus, revealing the formation of a distinct interphase region with intermediate stiffness.

  • Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations further validate the enhanced fiber-matrix adhesion facilitated by the hierarchical nanofiber structure.

Mechanical Testing:

  • The effectiveness of this hierarchical interphase is demonstrated through various mechanical tests, including rheology, uniaxial tensile testing, and in-plane shear strength testing.

  • Results show that composites with the hierarchical interphase exhibit significant improvements in mechanical properties, with up to 60% increased in-plane shear strength and 100% enhanced toughness.

The hierarchical interphase formation technique leverages the unique properties of nanofibers to create a tough, durable interphase that significantly enhances the overall performance of FRPCs. By forming covalent bonds between the nanofibers and the polymer matrix, this method ensures efficient load transfer and improved resistance to mechanical stresses.

This approach opens new avenues for manufacturing high-performance composites with superior toughness and strength, particularly for applications in aerospace, automotive, and renewable energy industries. Future research will focus on optimizing the nanofiber integration process and exploring its applicability to other polymer matrices, further expanding the potential of hierarchical interphase formation in advanced composite materials.

 

Advanced Techniques to Strengthen and Toughen Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites

In the pursuit of high-performance fiber-reinforced polymer composites (FRPCs), achieving both strength and toughness simultaneously has been a challenging goal. The recent development of hierarchical interphase formation using chemically transformable thermoplastic nanofibers offers a promising solution. This approach has been shown to significantly enhance the mechanical properties of composites, particularly in terms of interfacial strength and toughness.

Here are the advanced techniques used in this innovative approach:

Electrospinning of High Aspect Ratio PAN Nanofibers:

  • Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers are produced through electrospinning, creating a randomly oriented, high aspect ratio nanofiber network. This network forms a physically intertwined scaffold on the reinforcing carbon fibers, providing a foundation for enhanced fiber-matrix interaction.

Covalent Bonding with the Polymer Matrix:

  • The PAN nanofibers are integrated with the acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) polymer matrix through a controlled heat treatment process. This process facilitates the formation of covalent bonds between the nitrile groups in PAN and ABS, resulting in a robust, co-continuous interphase.

Rheological Characterization and Mechanical Testing:

  • Rheological studies reveal significant improvements in the storage modulus (G’) and complex viscosity (η) of PAN-ABS composites compared to neat ABS. These enhancements are attributed to the increased molecular weight and covalent bonding between PAN and ABS.

  • Uniaxial tensile tests demonstrate that PAN-ABS composites exhibit a ≈60% increase in Young's modulus, ≈20% higher tensile strength, and ≈50% improved fracture toughness compared to neat ABS.

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) Simulations:

  • AFM is used to map the local stiffness distribution within the fiber-matrix interphase. The results indicate the formation of a distinct interphase region with intermediate stiffness, enhancing load transfer efficiency.

  • MD simulations further validate the enhanced fiber-matrix adhesion facilitated by the hierarchical nanofiber structure, showing a consistent decrease in interaction energy with increasing PAN-ABS covalent bonding.

In-Plane Shear Strength Testing:

  • The in-plane shear strength (𝜏_IPST) of the composites is characterized to measure the interfacial strength between the carbon fibers and the ABS matrix. The results show a ≈60% improvement in 𝜏_IPST and a ≈100% increase in energy release during fracture for composites with the hierarchical interphase.

  • Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis of the fractured surfaces reveals better adhesion and tougher fracture planes in composites with higher heat treatment temperatures, confirming the effectiveness of the covalent bonding.

The advanced techniques employed in this approach demonstrate a practical and scalable method for producing high-performance FRPCs with superior interfacial properties. By leveraging the unique characteristics of electrospun PAN nanofibers and their covalent integration with the polymer matrix, this method achieves remarkable improvements in composite toughness and strength.

Future research will focus on optimizing these techniques and exploring their applicability to other polymer matrices, potentially broadening the range of high-performance composites for use in demanding applications such as aerospace, automotive, and renewable energy sectors. This innovative approach paves the way for the development of next-generation FRPCs that meet the stringent performance requirements of modern engineering challenges.

 

References

We would like to extend our heartfelt gratitude to the authors Sumit Gupta, Tanvir Sohail, Marti Checa, Sargun S. Rohewal, Michael D. Toomey, Nihal Kanbargi, Joshua T. Damron, Liam Collins, Logan T. Kearney, Amit K. Naskar, and Christopher C. Bowland for their invaluable contributions to the research paper titled "Enhancing Composite Toughness Through Hierarchical Interphase Formation". Their dedication and expertise have provided significant insights into enhancing composite toughness through hierarchical interphase formation. This blog post would not have been possible without their pioneering research and detailed findings. Thank you for advancing the field of fiber-reinforced polymer composites and for your continued efforts in materials science.

 

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